What is Diabetes ? Causes,Types and Treatment
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases which is characterized by imbalance of blood glucose level in otherwise increase blood sugar level.Increasing of blood sugar levels can due to inadequate of insulin production or insulin has loss sensitivity to decreasing blood glucose level.Patients with diabetes has complains about frequent urination which we call polyuria,more thirsty than before (polydipsia) and increase appetite (polyphagia )
There are mainly three specific types of diabetes may seen ;
1) Type 1 Diabetes (İnsulin dependent diabetes )
İn this type of diabetes they are lack of insulin secretion which means pancreas can't produce insulin anymore.for this reason this type of diabetes calls insulin -dependent diabetes.Type 1 diabetes most commonly seen in young children and young adult.
Today increasing range of the getting type 1 diabetes .Approximately 1 in 10 diabetic patient has type 1 diabetes.and most of them have younger age.
Treatment of Type 1 diabetes always need to take insulin injection for the all life.in specific dosage they should use before eating food.and another important factor they should have special diet which has low carbohydrate.
2) Type 2 Diabetes ( İnsulin resistance )
This type of diabetes is more common in elderly people after age of 40,The pancreas does not produce enough insulin or there are insulin but not sensitive to cell receptor.in other definition body do not give reaction to insulin.
About 90% of all cases of diabetes are type 2.Type 2 diabetes may need no treatment in some cases so changing lifestyle and diet may be enough for overcoming to the diabetes.Most commonly symptom which is seen in type 2 diabetes are ;
Polydipsia (often thirsty)
Late wound healing
İncrease of risk of infection
Feeling loss of sensation on the hand
Polyuria ( frequent urination )
İn some patient with diabetes type 2 they can easily control their type 2 diabetes symptoms doing such as losing weight,health diet,regular exercise and regularly testing blood glucose levels.
3) Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes occurs during the pregnancy.The mechanisms of getting diabetes same to the other,body is can't produce enough insulin so insulin has main function to transport glucose into the cells so if there are enough insulin secretion and more glucose can't go to inside of the cells so than rising levels of blood glucose
Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made on their pregnancy term with blood test.İn most case they can control blood glucose level with exercise and good diet.İf gestational diabetes is undiagnosed during the pregnancy there are risk of increase baby weight higher than normal.
According to the Harvard University Health İnstitutes women who have diet rich in animal fat and cholesterol they have greater risk of gestational diabetes than whose diets low cholesterol and less animal fats